How Neanderthal Are You?
The evolution of easy access to DNA testing has contributed immense information to testing service DNA databases that allow tracking back thousands of years. However, new technology allows testing to go back even further, and perhaps as far back as more than 60,000 years ago.
At about this time in history, early humans moved from Africa to other regions of the world. These regions had a variety of different hominins, which are the ancestors of today's humans. Depending on the region of the world, different hominins were present, each with slightly different characteristics and features. The result was the movement of Neanderthals throughout what is now the Middle East and Europe. There was also another group, known as the Denisovans, which moved throughout Asia.
These groups met and procreated, which resulted in different DNA base pairs found today. The result is that most Europeans and Asians today have about two percent of their genomes from Neanderthals. Asians also have up to six percent of their DNA from the Denisovans.
Originally, it was believed that the population of Africa had limited Neanderthal DNA as the movement of the early humans did not reach that far. Through new studies and increasing information in DNA databases, these theories are now in question.
New Findings and Models
Results in recent studies show that African populations have a higher level of Neanderthal DNA than originally believed. In addition, a new model provides greater insight into the early underestimation of DNA ancestry from Neanderthals in modern Europeans.
Studies at Princeton University have found 17 million base pairs of current African genomes are, in fact, Neanderthal. This is likely a result of the movement of early man from Europe to Africa, bringing the genetic material back. This is a very different model than the idea of early man leaving Africa and staying in Europe. It suggests less of a migration and more of a two-way flow of humans between the two geographic areas.
Another interesting discovery is the initial migration from Africa about 60,000 is not likely to have been the first as originally believed. Researchers now believe there may have been travel from Africa more than 200,000 years ago, leading to the addition of different genetic material to the Neanderthal genome well before what was previously believed.
To further add to the mystery, all current Neanderthal DNA is from a single source. The genome was found in a Siberian cave. It is very likely, according to paleoanthropologists, that other Neanderthal genomes are present in today's humans. These genomes may be responsible for many of the fossils of early hominins that are often confusing to researchers. They often include features or elements that are dissimilar to each other, demonstrating a greater variety in Neanderthals over time and in different locations.
The study of the human genome is constantly evolving. Genomelink provides you with the latest in information in learning about your ancestry. Use your raw DNA data to find out more about yourself, including your possible Neanderthal heritage.
How Much Neanderthal DNA Do I Have?
We’ve all heard about Neanderthals - a distinct species of humans that is the closest ancient relative to the modern-day human species, Homo sapiens. They lived from roughly 400,000 to 40,000 years ago across Europe and southwest and central Asia, and had distinct facial features, including a strong brow ridge and stocky bodies.
But even if your ancestors didn’t originate in those geographic regions, you might still have some Neanderthal DNA. That’s because ancient humans traveled and came into contact with other human species. In fact, recent studies show that African populations have a higher level of Neanderthal DNA than originally believed. For example, researchers at Princeton University have found that 17 million base pairs of current African genomes are, in fact, Neanderthal.
With all of that in mind, depending on their genetic ancestry, individuals today may have inherited up to 2% of Neanderthal DNA. If you’re just getting started with your genealogy research, you might be interested in a Neanderthal DNA test to see if you’re one of those individuals.
There are a number of DNA analysis companies that offer Neanderthal ancestry reports. Some of these companies will also offer DNA testing, while others will simply ask you to upload your raw DNA data. Here are just some of the options available to DNA researchers on the market today:
- 23andMe - This popular DNA testing and analysis company offers a Neanderthal Ancestry Report, among many other genetic insights. 23andMe has also written quite extensively about their Neanderthal reports, which will help you navigate your DNA results if they include Neanderthal DNA. You can read those articles here.
- Ancestrum - This testing and analysis company offers 7 different ancestry reports, including on Neanderthal ancestry. They also offer supplementary information about who Neanderthals were, and how they determine if you have inherited Neanderthal DNA. You can read more about Ancestrum’s Neanderthal reports here.
- Ancestry - Family tree-building enthusiasts flock to Ancestry for information about their family story. You can even search last names on their site to see if Ancestry DNA Neanderthal information pops up for you, before even taking a DNA test
- Genomelink - Instead of offering DNA testing, Genomelink accepts your raw DNA data from tests you’ve done elsewhere, to provide you with supplemental information about your genetic history. With reports, tools, and insights you won’t find anywhere else, Genomelink can help you complete your ancestry story, including reports on your Neanderthal DNA.
You can research your possible Neanderthal DNA with one of these companies, but many genealogy researchers prefer to work with multiple companies in order to get confirmation and/or to build out a larger picture of their genetic history.
The field of human genetics has significantly grown in the past few decades, and continues to evolve. That’s why Genomelink is constantly updating its insights and reports with the latest information, to keep you up to date as you explore your ancestry. Get started today for FREE when you upload your raw DNA data at Genomelink.